Spatial Fundamental Information

Thursday, December 3rd, 2009

Geo-spatial information describes various information on the Earth including maps, aerial photos, remote sensing images, paintings, characters, databases and the addresses (coordinate system) with attributes. The essence of the data itself can be regarded as the fundamental data that has the objective descriptions of topography, positions and other specific data. Generally speaking, Geo-spatial information provides the basic information of addresses, sizes, orientations, distances and relative positions etc.
 
Attached graph 1.  Historical maps
Attached graph 2.  Maps at the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century.(Ex.
Taiwan historical topographic maps during the period of Japan’s colony)
Attached graph 3.  Modern maps (Ex.
The administration map, Topographic maps)
Attached graph 4. 
Aerial photos
Attached graph 5.  Remote sensing images 

 

Infrastructure

Thursday, December 3rd, 2009


Development in geospatial information infrastructure  
 
 
  System Infrastructure 
            Data Structure 
               ○Metadata for Spatial Objects 
               ○Data Standard for Spatial Objects 
               ○Metadata Mechanism for Contents 
               ○Spatial-Temporal Data Model 
            Java-based Web Mapping  
            Web-based Collaboration 
            Spatial & Temporal Infrastructure
            Content Management Framework
            Collection of Geospatial Materials 
    ◎Core Technology
            Metadata for Spatial Objects 
            Contents Standards Analysis and Management
            Spatial Computing
            3D GIS
            Information Retrieval & Search
            Multilingual Support
            Spatial Analysis & Statistics 
            System Integration 
     ◎User Interface Design
            Select a geographic region; 
            Specify a collection name (e.g., a place name)
            Give metadata attribute values or value ranges

Processing Procedures

Friday, November 27th, 2009

●Operating Procedure of Relational Scanning Equipment

    oAerial Photo Scanner

       Aerial photos that cover mainland China and Taiwan area during 1950s
       and 1960s are scanned with the Vexcel Ultra Scan 5000 scanner.

             Vexcel Ultra Scan 5000 Scanning parameters
             Vexcel Ultra Scan 5000 Scanning Procedure
            
Vexcel Ultra Scan 5000 Recitificational Procedure

    oAll sorts of map scanning equipments

             Video clips of Scanning procedure
             Large Roller Scanner
             Large Plotter
             Digital Camera for Stereo Object
             Digitization of damaged data source.
             High precision aerial photo scanner
             High precision scanner
             Microfilm scanner
             Storage equipment

●Digitizing

    oMaps

    oRemote Sensing Images

    oAerial Photos

DTM producing

DTM Visualization

Recording Metadata

●Building Up Database Flowchart

    oFlow-chart of establishing scanned maps database
    oFlow-chart of establishing aerophoto database 

Processing Procedures_test

Monday, November 16th, 2009




Operating Procedure of Relational Scanning Equipment

  • Aerial Photo Scanner
  • Aerial photos that cover mainland China and Taiwan area during 1950s and 1960s are scanned with the Vexcel Ultra Scan 5000 scanner.
    Vexcel Ultra Scan 5000 Scanning parameters
    Vexcel Ultra Scan 5000 Scanning Procedure
    Vexcel Ultra Scan 5000 Recitificational Procedure
  • All sorts of map scanning equipments
  • Video clips of Scanning procedure
    Large Roller Scanner
    Large Plotter
    Digital Camera for Stereo Object
    Digitization of damaged data source.
    High precision aerial photo scanner
    High precision scanner
    Microfilm scanner
    Storage equipment

●Digitizing

Maps

Remote Sensing Images

Aerial Photos

●DTM producing

DTM Visualization

●Recording Metadata

●Building Up Database Flowchart

Specifications & standards

Monday, November 16th, 2009

Specification and development in spatial information standard

The specification and standard follows consistent data acquisition, processing, quality control, analysis, access, presentation, data exchange, transfer and share methods.

  • ISO TC211 Geographic information and Geomatics relational standard
    1. Progress 2. Following the ISO/TC211
  • Related international standard
    1. CEN TC287: Geographic Information – Data description – Metadata. Draft V2 – for 2nd informal vote by WG 2, January 1996.
    2. CERCO/MEGRIN: GDDD – Geographical Data Description Directory.
    3. IHO: S57, version 3.
    4. ISO / TC 211: draft ISO 15046-15 Geographic information – Metadata – Version 2.0; ISO/TC 211/WG 3; 1997-01-20; 115 pages.
    5. NATO DGIWG/DIGEST: N469 Geographic Information – Data description – Metadata.
  • Related national standard
    1. Australia & New Zealand: Core metadata elements for land and geographic directories in Australia and New Zealand / The Australia New Zealand Land Information Council (ANZLIC).
    2. Canada:
      • Directory information describing digital geo-referenced data sets (DIDD) / Canadian General Standards Board
      • Canadian Geomatics Interchange Standard – Spatial Archive and Interchange Format (CGIS-SAIF)
    3. Finland: Paikkatietohakemisto (Metadata service specification)
    4. Russia: Metadata of digital terrain models and electronic maps (MDTMEM).
    5. British:NGDF
    6. R.O.C:National Geographic Information System (NGIS)(NGIS)relational specifications
    7. P.R.C:a. Sharing Information Standard for Sustainable Development of China b. NREDIS draft

Spatial information metadata
Metadata should to be recorded by the data producers or providers, which help the users realize the character of the data, reduce the possibility of misuse, and improve the correction and convenience of retrieving data.

  • Purpose and value of metadata
  • FGDC CSDGM
  • ISO Metadata Standard – TC211/15046-15
  • Recording tools for Metadata:
    FGDCMETA.AML
    Tools for creation of formal metadata(Tkme)
    MetaMaker/Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center(Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey)introduction
    USGS Metadata Tools Download Webpage
    Summaries of Metadata Tools
    ESRI/ArcView Metadata tools
    ESRI/ArcGIS/ArcCatalog Metadata tools

Relational standards and specifications of the project

  • Digal Raster Graphic,DRG
    After the geo-referenced process, the specification should conform to the accuracy and quality of the maps. The scanning resolution is at least 300dpi in tiff format. The images should be saved with a wavelet compressing technique (such as MrSID format).
  • Digal Line Graphic,DLG
    The terrain patterns are presented and stored by using topological structures (point, line and polygon), which will be produced by digital grid maps using Arc/Info Shapefile or international exchange format (like Spatial Data Transformation Standard, SDTS). Due to the consideration of time and cost, we process Taiwan historical maps with layers.
  • Digal Elevation Model,DEM
    Equidistance measured digital elevation data can be used stand-alone or accompanied with DRG、DLG、DOQ data, which is similar to the process of digital vector data on demand.
  • Digal Orthophoto Quadrangle,DOQ
    Ortho-rectified aerial photos possess the similar accuracy of positions and orientations to the maps.
    After scanning the aerial photos, we merely process the basic rectification. and make the coverage maps. (The aerial photos are not for the cartography purpose, so the displacement is large enough to result in high cost of processing regular ortho-rectification.) Besides, the maps have high priority in producing digital raster graphics.
  • The specification and the description of recording metadata (ref. NGIS NGIS relational specifications)(ref. NGIS NGISrelational specifications)
  • Data quality specification and quality criteria control mechanism(Quality Criteria & Control Mechanism)
  • Data classification(ref. NGIS NGIS)(ref. NGIS NGIS)
  • Standardization and conversion of data format.
  • Standard editing and design on maps.(Systematization)
  • Symbol standardization